Addresses can either be universally administered addresses or locally administered addresses. A universally administered address is uniquely assigned to a device by its manufacturer.
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The first three octets in transmission order identify the organization that issued the identifier and are known as the Organizationally Unique Identifier OUI. The following three MAC and EUI or five EUI octets are assigned by that organization in nearly any manner they please, subject to the constraint of uniqueness. A locally administered address is assigned to a device by a network administrator, overriding the burned-in address. Locally administered addresses do not contain OUIs.
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Universally administered and locally administered addresses are distinguished by setting the second- least-significant bit of the most significant byte of the address. If the bit is 0, the address is universally administered.
If it is 1, the address is locally administered. In the example address the most significant byte is 06 hex , the binary form of which is , where the second-least-significant bit is 1. Therefore, it is a locally administered address. Consequently, this bit is 0 in all OUIs. If the least significant bit of the most significant octet of an address is set to 0 zero , the frame is meant to reach only one receiving NIC.
This type of transmission is called unicast. A unicast frame is transmitted to all nodes within the collision domain , which typically ends at the nearest network switch or router. A switch will forward a unicast frame through all of its ports except for the port that originated the frame if the switch has no knowledge of which port leads to that MAC address, or just to the proper port if it does have knowledge. Only the node with the matching hardware MAC address will accept the frame; network frames with non-matching MAC-addresses are ignored, unless the device is in promiscuous mode.
If the least significant bit of the most significant address octet is set to 1, the frame will still be sent only once; however, NICs will choose to accept it based on criteria other than the matching of a MAC address: for example, based on a configurable list of accepted multicast MAC addresses.
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Multicast Addresses and Scope
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It helped a lot during my Awakens The Interest of Young Networkers! I want to tell that ipcisco. They help a lot to the doubts of the Network IPCisco is really helpful, useful and awesome We will take the following multicast MAC address and calculate what 32 multicast IP addresses map to it:. Above you can see how I translated the hexadecimal address into binary, this is the full MAC address:.
The digits in blue are the class D IP address in binary in decimal. The green digits are the 5 bits that we lose because we have to map a 28 bit unique multicast IP address to a 23 bit multicast MAC address. We will take the blue and green digits and put the red digits behind them:.
So the complete multicast IP address is Now we can play with the green digits to see what other multicast IP addresses map to the same MAC address:. There you have it, all the multicast IP addresses that map to multicast MAC address e:0b Now you know how it is done in binary, you can learn a faster method to calculate these IP addresses.
This is killing me. I have a task to convert I am just not getting it right now. I understand that these calculations make your head spin…they are kinda annoying. Excellent post and excellent explanation of what should be simpler and was made unnecessarily complex. I believe it should be E Excellent creation as usual. Please confirm my understanding is correct which is grabbed from this lesson. Please let me know if I am wrong. You are correct that these layer two addresses are indeed multicast addresses.
This means that there is no corresponding multicast IP address to map them to. Multicast IP addresses are only mapped using the stated rule.